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Vertical rates at the 42 GPS sites recording primarily postglacial rebound are then employed as a primary target for the revision of the Antarctic component of the previous global model of the GIA process denoted ICE-5G (VM2) that was described in detail in Peltier (2004).The space- and time-dependent ice thickness is adjusted in order to enable the model to best fit the inferred GPS uplift rates as well as the available ice thickness change data of Whitehouse (2012b) and assess the meaningfulness of the differences.By way of further introduction we will proceed immediately to enumerate the differences we have been led to infer and the fundamental physical reasons that underlie their existence.Postglacial rebound models consist of three highly correlated characteristics, namely the thickness of the ice sheet as a function of location and time (the glaciation history; Fig.Finally, the new model of Antarctic deglaciation reconciles the global constraint upon the global mass loss during deglaciation provided by the Barbados record of relative sea level history when coupled with the Northern Hemisphere counterpart of this new model.2002), is not well constrained by radiocarbon dating of relative sea level (RSL) histories alone, as is the case for both Fennoscandia and Laurentia (e.g. (The abbreviation ‘ka’ is employed herein to indicate thousands of years Before the Present, BP.) Whitehouse (2012a) have compiled estimates of ice thickness change during deglaciation of Antarctica based on exposure age dating at 62 locations, thereby usefully enriching the constraints on the deglaciation history that drives the postglacial rebound process of the southern continent (Fig. Moreover, the increasing quantity and quality of GPS observations of vertical motion are also constraining glacial isostatic adjustment in Antarctica (Capra (2012a). Poorly constrained rates of RSL fall are given in parentheses. Poorly constrained rates of RSL fall are given in parentheses.RSL sites: AP (Ablation Point), BI (Beak Island), JRI (James Ross Island), L (Larsemann), MB (Marguerite Bay), PIB (Pine Island Bay), S (Soya coast), SC (Scott Coast), SSI (South Shetland Islands), TNB (Terra Nova Bay), V (Vestfold hills), W (Windmill islands). RSL sites: AP (Ablation Point), BI (Beak Island), JRI (James Ross Island), L (Larsemann), MB (Marguerite Bay), PIB (Pine Island Bay), S (Soya coast), SC (Scott Coast), SSI (South Shetland Islands), TNB (Terra Nova Bay), V (Vestfold hills), W (Windmill islands).Thirdly, ice loss occurs quickly from 12 to 5 ka, and the contribution to global sea level rise during Meltwater Pulse 1B (11.5 ka) is large (5 m), consistent with sedimentation constraints from cores from the Antarctica ice shelf.
(Herein we refer to the entire region from the base of the lithosphere to the seismic discontinuity at 660 km as the upper mantle.) We will find that this upper-mantle viscosity structure enables the model to fit all available Antarctica data, a finding that disagrees with a primary conclusion of Whitehouse Pa s on the basis of their analysis of the available RSL histories.
Relative sea level (RSL) histories from the British Isles are the data most tightly constraining the thickness of the lithosphere to be 90 km.